模块和包



CUE 像其他语言一样,也有模块(module)和包(package)系统。

因为有 module 和 package,所以也有 import。

对于像 Yaml 和 JSON 的配置语言来说,这是最重要的优点之一。

CUE 的模块系统和 Go 的非常相似,但是也有不同点。

  • 一个模块名有特定的格式
    • domain.com/name 是最小的模块
    • github.com/owner/repo 是通用模块
    • import 时不加 domain,表明引入内置的标准包
    • 不是需要一个真正的 domain 或 repository,只是定义需要的路径
  • 必须创建一个文件(cue.mod/module.cue)来声明模块
  • 模块由很多包组成,CUE 支持在一个目录中包含多个 package
  • 只允许绝对路径的引用,不允许相对路径的引用(出于安全考虑)
  • 可以在引用时修改包的名字(就像之前看到的 k8s.io 的引用)
  • 同一个包下的定义可以直接访问而不需要引用

但是,CUE 还没有依赖管理系统,它将引用和处理他们。详情参考下文

定义模块

为了定义模块,只需要简单的添加一个 cue.mod/module.cue 文件。

在创建之前,你将 能引用其他目录或模块的文件。

file listing

├── root.cue
├── a
│   └── a.cue
└── cue.mod
    ├── module.cue
    └── pkg
        └── github.com
            └── foo
                └── bar
                    ├── bar.cue
                    ├── b
                    │   └── b.cue
                    └── multi
                        ├── hello.cue
                        └── world.cue

cue.mod/module.cue

module: "github.com/hofstadter-io/cuetorials"

root.cue

package root

import (
	// imports from a dependency
	"github.com/foo/bar"
	// import from a dependency subdir, rewrite name
	B "github.com/foo/bar/b"
	// import from a nested dir with package name
	"github.com/foo/bar/multi:hello"
	"github.com/foo/bar/multi:world"

	// import from this module
	"github.com/hofstadter-io/cuetorials/a"
)

root: "root"

vals: {
	ex1: bar.value
	ex2: B.b
	ex3: hello.msg
	ex4: world.msg
	ex5: a.a
}

a/a.cue

package a

a: "a"

cue.mod/pkg/github.com/foo/bar/bar.cue

package bar

value: "BAR"

cue.mod/pkg/github.com/foo/bar/b/b.cue

package b

b: "b"

cue.mod/pkg/github.com/foo/bar/multi/hello.cue

package hello

msg: "hello"

cue.mod/pkg/github.com/foo/bar/multi/world.cue

package world

msg: "world"

当运行下面的命令,将看到输出合并了 module 和 package

cue eval root.cue

root: "root"
vals: {
	ex1: "BAR"
	ex2: "b"
	ex3: "hello"
	ex4: "world"
	ex5: "a"
}

依赖管理

CUE 的依赖都在 cue.mod/pkg/... 文件下,依赖的模块的文件路径和引用它们的路径一样。

cue.mod
├── module.cue
└── pkg
    └── github.com
        ├── foo
        │   └── bar
        └── hofstadter-io
            ├── hof
            ├── hofmod-cli
            └── hofmod-server

CUE 目前还没有依赖管理系统,你必须通过其他方式获取它们。(Open issue)

Fortunately, Hofstadter has built a generalized dependency management system as part of our hof tool, based on go mod and Minimum Version Selection (MVS). While it does not have all of the automation of a go mod solution, but should help you out unitl Cue has its own.

First, you will need to initialize a module

hof mod init cue github.com/hofstadter-io/cuetorials will setup both the cue.mods file and the cue.mod/module.cue file.

The format for cue.mods looks like Go’s.

cue.mods

// this should match the cue.mod/modules.cue value
module "github.com/hofstadter-io/cuetorials"

cue = master // or another version, not really used but a required field

require (
domain.com/owner/repo v0.1.2    // select a version
domain.com/other/repo v0.0.0    // latest version
)

replace github.com/other/repo => github.com/myorg/repo  // replace with a different remote repository
replace github.com/hof/studios => ../../studios         // local replace

hof will not inspect your code to determine dependencies, thus you have to always manually add them.

When you add or change dependencies, or change the code in a local replace, run the following command to fetch them to your modules “vendor” directory (cue.mod/pkg)

hof mod vendor cue

hof will fetch, cache, and update your dependencies using the MVS algorithm. You will now be able to import from both the dependencies and local directories to your module. If you only want local imports, you don’t need

You can learn more about Hofstadter and our hof tool at https://docs.hofstadter.io

We also have several modules available on GitHub (https://github.com/hofstadter-io) using the hofmod- prefix. These are designed for our code generation framework, discussed in the final section of “first-steps”.

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